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The James White Library at Andrews University has negotiated a site license with Clarivate for the use of EndNote.

Best Practices for Document Management

Because a dissertation or thesis is an extended project, and because of the anticipated timeline and number of references, certain methods of working with the computer files are recommended that will avoid common frustrations with the EndNote program as the document grows and the final copy is produced:

1.  Whenever an entry is made in the EndNote Library, verify immediately that the formatting is correct for the style that is in use (i.e. APA, Turabian). The Bibliography/Reference list entry can be checked using the Preview tab. Any changes that may be required should be made immediately. Edit the Output Styles for non-standard resources as soon as possible, and do not procrastinate. Waiting until when the final copy is needed is inviting major frustration.

2. Use only one EndNote library file for the entire dissertation. Check routinely for duplicates, and carefully avoid using duplicate entries of the same source in the dissertation/thesis.

3. The working copy of the dissertation/thesis and the EndNote library should be kept in the same folder at all times. All new work on the document or in the library should use these exclusively. Backup copies can and should be routinely stored elsewhere, but all new work should be continued using the original document and library files.

4. Unless specifically requested, all readers and editors should work on a Plain Text copy of the dissertation. This retains all Word processor formatting, but the embedded codes that link the EndNote library are removed. This avoids any software conflicts that might get in the way of the reader/editor. It also avoids conflicts between the working EndNote Library and the travelling EndNote library associated with the document, such as become evident when readers attempt to edit or change a reference.

EndNote is a tool that can improve efficiency in managing bibliography and incorporating reference styles in a document. But it is not a substitute for the author's competence in using it effectively and correctly.

Importing From Databases

Importing bibliographic details from databases is an efficient method of entering references into the EndNote library.


1. The overall accuracy of the bibliographic details varies from database to database. Imported citation entries must always be verified.

  •  Importing citations from periodical databases such as those from Ebsco, ProQuest and JSTOR may be reasonably reliable, but doing this from other databses such as Google Scholar need careful scrutiny (when Google Scholar harvests the bibliographic details from a major publisher, it will probably be fine; but if the bibliographic details are harvested from an institutional repository, a government website, a library catalog, etc., interesting irregularities are common). This category of import must be corrected.
  •  All records imported from a library database, whether JeWeL, MelCat, or WorldCat, will be entered with the Reference Type of book as default, even though it might be an edited book, e-book, dissertation, or audio-visual item. This category of import must be corrected.

2. Styles have differing requirements.The bibliographic details that are imported into EndNote do not necessarily reflect the style in use, so some elements may not be reflected. This category of import must be corrected. For example,

  •    Turabian uses headline style for titles, APA uses a modified sentence style.
  •    Turabian uses the full author name, APA uses last name with initials. 
  •    Turabian uses series titles, APA does not.